Shinkansen - Bullet Trains
Shinkansen is the name of the super high speed trains used in Japan commonly referred to as "Bullet Trains". The top speed of these trains is around 320km/h or 200mph. The Shinkansen was originally in operation in 1964 and linked Osaka and Tokyo.
The current network links many major cities from the south of Japan in Kagoshima to Hakodate in the north. Commonly used from Tokyo, to Kyoto, to Osaka, to Hiroshima and beyond.
The Tokaido Shinkansen Line is the train line that runs between Tokyo and Osaka. There are three different Shinkansen trains that run on this line. The Nozomi, Hikari and Kodama.
Note that Shinkansen can refer to either the train itself, the line, or the network, and literally translates to "New Trunk Line".